The detrimental effects of weathering and erosion can be managed through soil conservation though. Roosevelt 1882-1945 , states passed laws creating nearly 3,000 local soil conservation districts. The circular rows of plants across the slopes check the soil erosion. On the ridges tree seeds are sown Fig. The Act withdrew some commodity feed grain, wheat , rice, upland cotton , etc. Most of the time it's very well known what needs to be done and has been understood, at least in terms of cause and effect, since ancient times. Harmful gases and solid wastes that pollute air and water, also pollute land, rendering the soil infertile.
The strips should be across the slope. Terraces are leveled areas constructed at right angles to the slope to reduce soil erosion. . A good compromise is to use rather than a concrete slab for your patio to allow the water to percolate down into the soil. This can be done by making arrangements for their resettlement which involves the provision of residential accommodation, agricultural implements, seeds, manures, cattle and reclaimed land. In the absence of vegetation, soil is exposed to erosion due to wind and water.
The concern of the environmental movement about water quality in the 1970s helped to return attention to the problem of soil erosion. New Vegetative Approaches to Soil and Water Conservation. These all increase the capacity of the land to support the growth of plants on a sustainable basis. Political and economic action is further required to solve the erosion problem. In addition to this, planting some useful tree species will also prevent stream bank erosion.
By pan breaking, drainage and percolation of rain water is improved and soil is saved from residual run-off and erosion. Each one percent increase in soil organic matter helps soil hold 20,000 gallons more water per acre. Stream channels erode when soil is removed from the fringing banks, or from within the channel of the stream itself. The soil excavated from the trenches is deposited along the lower edge in the form of bund. Keyline Design — A more enhanced version of Contour Plowing, maximum water retention is achieved by taking into account all the watershed properties when making the contour lines.
At naturally occurring rates, land typically loses about one inch 2. Erosion increases rapidly with increasing steepness and length of slope. Researchers conducted at Solapur in Maharashtra have shown that grasses have good soil binding capacity. Preventing this by constructing walls along the banks or plant useful tree species will prevent this in the future and down the stream. This can lead to damage of the soil and nutrient loss. Planting species that can tolerate saline conditions to produce surface cover can preserve soil salinity can be reduced.
Environmental activists in the 1970s, concerned over water quality, helped return public interest to the problem of soil erosion. In the area where plantations have not been made the soil is actively eroding. For the remainder of this essay, we examine the dangers involved in such erosion and the use of measures to prevent it. These will work together to slow the force of wind over ground areas. Terracing is the only practical method of soil conservation on steep land.
Soil terraces occur widely in Southeast and South Asia , , East Africa , and Nigeria. Hill slope is cut into a number of terraces having horizontal top and steep slopes on the back and front. Lutz and Chandler 1946 have stated that climax vegetation in any region is most effective agent to prevent accelerated erosion. Bennett selected the sites for some stations and designed their research programs. Plant Trees Simply planting trees is a good conservation method. Contour trenching: Several 2 feet by one foot trenches are formed across the slopes at suitable intervals. Next came the Herder period, from about 4000 to 1500 b.
There are two basic approaches to soil erosion control: barrier and cover. Windbreaks — Rows of tall trees are used in dense patterns around the farmland and prevents wind erosion. Afforestation is applied to Indian deserts, where such plants as Lowsonia alba. These practices aim at the following objectives: 1. Dry farming practices: Dry farming is useful in those areas where rainfall is very low, uncertain and uneven in distribution.
Perimeter Runoff Control — This is the practice of planting trees, shrubs and ground cover around the perimeter of your farmland which impedes surface flows and keeps nutrients in the farmed soil. Rotating crops is also an effective means of soil conservation. Mulches two to three inches thick reduce soil moisture, evaporation and increase amount of soil moisture through the addition of organic matter to soil. Home Soil Conservation Methods Home soil conservation methods are the techniques that can be utilized at home to preserve and improve soil quality. Some plants such as maize stalks, cotton stalks, tobacco stalks, potato tops etc. The problem of afforestation is the selection of suitable species for a given area. Preserving soil moisture is important means to maintain the necessary water for agricultural production, and also helps minimize irrigation needs of the crops.
Soil conservation practices also prevent the buildup of toxic substances in the soil, such as salts and excessive amounts of pesticides. In ley farming grass is cultivated in rotation with regular crops. Contour plowing also helps in percolation of water in the soil. Since soil affects the world far beyond farms, it seems only fitting to approach it not as a concern merely of agriculture but of the environment in general. Another example is afforded by Sankaracharya Hills in the vicinity of Srinagar which was heavily eroded in the past.