What I establish fascinating was that when they were babies they existed like a typical life however when they got older they went insane. These facts are important to remember. If they labeled and treated me as having a bleeding peptic ulcer, I doubt that I could argue convincingly that medical science does not know how to diagnose that condition. Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. This is to say that physicians are more inclined to call a healthy person sick a false positive, Type 2 than a sick person healthy a false negative, Type 1.
I have already mentioned two. It has long been known that the amount of time a person spends with you can be an index of your significance to him. This section is a really great one however I didn't prefer how the experiments were described. We do not pretend to describe the subjective experiences of true patients. Staff shortages are pervasive, and that shortens patient contact. States, it had been reasonable to generalise the outcome as well as other mental hospitals in individuals days.
The first concerns the proliferation of community mental health facilities, of crisis intervention centers, of the human potential movement, and of behavior therapies that, for all of their own problems, tend to avoid psychiatric labels, to focus on specific problems and behaviors, and to retain the individual in a relatively non-pejorative environment. Sixty percent of the former group diagnosed psychoses, most often schizophrenia, while none of the control group did so. The fake patients kept first hidden and then overt accounts of their experience. Rosenhan formulated an experiment to investigate if psychiatrists could identify the difference between people who are mentally ill and those who are not. It proved difficult to make an accurate estimate in this regard, since physicians often maintained hours that allowed them to come and go at different times. And, as I have shown, the magnitude of distortion is exceedingly high in the extreme context that is a psychiatric hospital.
The label sticks, a mark of inadequacy forever. But when the stimuli to my hallucinations are unknown, that is called craziness, or schizophrenia —as if that inference were somehow as illuminating as the others. If he had conducted the study in just one hospital, we would have been unable to apply the results anywhere other than that one hospital. What is viewed as normal in one culture may be seen as quite aberrant in another. Some examples may clarify this issue. It was therefore important to see whether the tendency toward diagnosing the sane insane could be reversed.
Similarly, the insane are not always insane. Every person on earth must feel depressed at times, or maybe moody or angry or tearful on other days. It is depressing to consider how that information will be used. With the exception myself I was the first pseudopatient and my presence was known to the hospital administration and chief psychologist and, so far as I can tell, to them alone , the presence of pseudopatients and the nature of the research program was not known to the hospital staffs. . Perhaps for the pleasure of it all? We all feel depressed sometimes, have moods, become angry and so forth, but in the context of a psychiatric hospital, these everyday human experiences and behaviours were interpreted as pathological.
Clearly, the meaning ascribed to his verbalizations that is, ambivalence, affective instability was determined by the diagnosis: schizophrenia. However, a more likely explanation would be that the patients had little to do, and one of the few things to anticipate in a psychiatric hospital is a meal. But the precautions proved needless. While there was clearly some tension present in all of them, their daily visitors could detect no serious behavioral consequences -- nor, indeed, could other patients. Physicians, especially psychiatrists, were even less available. Pseudopatients used pseudonyms, and those who worked in the mental health field were given false jobs in a different sector to avoid invoking any special treatment or scrutiny.
They reported that though the staff seemed to be well-meaning, they generally objectified and dehumanized the patients, often discussing patients at length in their presence as though they were not there, and avoiding direct interaction with patients except as strictly necessary to perform official duties. The experimenters feigned hallucinations to enter psychiatric hospitals, and acted normally afterwards. The needs for diagnosis and remediation of behavioral and emotional problems are enormous. The classification of abnormality is an area of psychology that constantly sparks debate. Rosenhan noted here that there is a big overlap between sane and insane behaviour.
Having once been labeled schizophrenic, there is nothing the pseudopatient can do to overcome the tag. The general degree of cooperative responses is considerably higher for these university groups than it was for pseudopatients in psychiatric hospitals. In some cases, there was a brief period of mild nervousness and anxiety, since none of the pseudopatients really believed that they would be admitted so easily. All of them employed pseudonyms, lest their alleged diagnoses embarrass them later. Once admitted and diagnosed, the pseudopatients were not able to obtain their release until they agreed with the psychiatrists that they were mentally ill and began taking medications, which they flushed down the toilet. One psychiatrist pointed to a group of patients who were sitting outside the cafeteria entrance half an hour before lunchtime. Patient quarters and possessions can be entered and examined by any staff member, for whatever reason.
For example, around ten per cent of their regular intake were judged by one psychiatrist and another staff member to be pseudo patients. Psychiatric diagnoses, in this view, are in the minds of observers and are not valid summaries of characteristics displayed by the observed. I do not, even now, understand this problem well enough to perceive solutions. Rosenhan suspects that the approach of determining the occurrence of mental condition based of a catalog of symptoms is not as objective as thought and is highly effected by the tendencies of the person doing the diagnosis. Mischel, Personality and Assessment Wiley, New York, 1968. If it makes no sense to label ourselves permanently depressed on the basis of an occasional depression, then it takes better evidence than is presently available to label all patients insane or schizophrenic on the basis of bizarre behaviors or cognitions.