Local taxes and levies increased while royal coffers declined. In Germany the consequences of the Concordat of Worms were far-reaching. The had neither such power nor such extensive domains as in , and but a certain number of the and were invested by the king, while many others were appointed and invested by the nobles of the kingdom, the counts and the dukes i. After some minor conflicts, these conditions were extended to the mediate. Shall not an office instituted by laymen--by those even who did not know God--be subject to that office which the providence of God Almighty has instituted for his own honor, and in compassion given to the world? The consecration of the newly minted by his superior then usually followed. But Gregory did not decide that.
The Concordat of Worms was a compromise, in which each party made concessions. From the beginning Henry V had enjoyed the support of the , who had relieved him of and had set aside his of allegiance to his. He had untiringly defended the inherited of the royal office, and had never sacrificed any of them. From the imperial point of view, it was impossible to separate the issue of lay investiture from the changes occurring in the political life of the northern Italian cities. The Investiture Controversy is also known as 'Lay Investiture Controversy' or 'Investiture Contest'.
The reformers gained much more than the actual agreement granted. The emperor's forces were defeated simultaneously on the Rhine and in. But finally he decided for Rudolph of Swabia after his victory at Flarchheim 27 January 1080 and declared the excommunication and deposition of King Henry again 7 March 1080. The different parts of the empire were therefore differently treated; in the investiture was to precede the , while in and it followed the and within the succeeding six months. Alexander and Hildebrand continued papal support for the pataria in Milan; as noted, the reformers demanded an end to marriage of the clergy, to the buying of church offices, and to lay control of appointments to church offices. Medieval kingship, which had been largely the creation of ecclesiastical ideals and personnel, was forced to develop new institutions and sanctions. Even his now opposed him, seeing themselves threatened by him and him set on sole mastery.
Obviously, this college stuck, as it is still the modern-day vehicle for choosing a Pope. But by the 13th century the bond between homage and investiture was normal, and homage was sworn in order to obtain a fief Établissements de , ed. The next step was even more immense - the elimination of lay control over the Church. The Crusade offered new opportunities for the maritime cities of northern Italy, which for some time had been opposing Muslim power in , Corsica, and. Instead, nobles and, especially, anointed kings assumed numerous Christian duties, including the protection and foundation of churches and abbeys, which they had often built and endowed. The of the king made a deep impression both in Germany and Italy. They had ample opportunity to make their influence felt in other ways.
Urban also worked closely with , count of Sicily, to reestablish the Latin church on the island, but he came into conflict with him over the degree of direct papal control to be exercised there. In 1081 he opened the conflict against Gregory in Italy. Second excommunication of Henry The opposition of the rebellious German nobles used the excommunication of Henry to set up a rival king , March 1077. It also stated that the Pope alone could appoint or depose the offices of the Church. In time the drawing up and handing over of this document replaced the symbolic investiture. This led to the outbreak of the investiture quarrel.
Negotiations met with no success, while the synod of the Gregorians at Quedlinburg April, 1085 showed no inclination to modify the principles which they represented. However, these elections were to take place in the presence of the king and the king would invest them with political authority and control of lands with a scepter, a symbol lacking any spiritual meanings. In the Concordat, Henry V gave up lay investiture and the pope conceded to the emperor the privilege of bestowing the symbols of territorial and administrative jurisdiction. At his death in 1099, Urban had greatly the of the papacy, yet the conflict with the empire remained unresolved. The king could no longer claim that he had the authority from God to appoint Church authorities. Rights of justice became localized and courts did not have to answer to royal authority.
While the monarchy was embroiled in the dispute with the Church, it declined in power and broke apart. The Church would turn the weapon of against the Holy Roman Empire under. A basis for compromise lay in the distinction between the and the secular elements in the appointment of. Guido of held more temperate opinions, and endeavoured to persuade the moderate Gregorians to adopt a policy of compromise. Dressed in the poor clothing of a penitent, Henry begged for forgiveness.
Although the declaring that bishops were to be elected by the clergy and people of their future diocese was never , it was ignored. During the feudal ages, the rite by which an overlord granted a portion of his lands to his vassal. In 1086 was succeeded by a milder character, , who had no desire to compete for the supreme authority, and drew back to the position that the whole strife was purely a question of administration. A projected crusade also required English support. In fact, the controversy became a struggle for supremacy between the institutions of the sacerdotium and monarchy regnum. Important for the king were the toleration of his presence at the election prœsentia regis , which lent him a possible influence over the electors, and of investiture before , whereby the elevation of an obnoxious candidate was rendered difficult or even impossible. Early Modern Germany, 1477-1806, MacMillan Press and University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, p.
In 1074 he had renewed under heavier penalties the prohibition of and marriage of the , but encountered at once great opposition from the German and. The deposition of and the election of , who now called himself , was confirmed by a synod, and in March, 1084, Henry was emperor by his. The king, however, cannot have for a moment that the renunciation would fall before the opposition of both and secular princes. The ban on lay investiture in Dictatus Papae did not shake the loyalty of William's bishops and abbots. The issue drove a deep wedge between the advocates of reform and the supporters of the empire, even dividing the reformers themselves. Brussels 1957 ; Feudalism, tr.
If the had given way somewhat too freely to his feelings, the king gave still freer vent to his. Should any discord arise between the parties, the emperor shall, after hearing the advice and verdict of the and other of the province lend his approval and support to the better side. The Investiture Controversy continued to flare up for several years until the compromises achieved in the Concordat of Worms in 1122. It became clear that at any price he had to get his absolution from Gregory. The Investiture Conflict or Investiture Controversy developed out of the desire of rulers in medieval Europe to expand their authority by making church officials dependent on them for lands and their religious offices.