Human and animal interference in a variety of ways leads to soil erosion. The distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0. Several factors contribute to soil deterioration. Wastelands should be afforested on a massive scale involving local people. It is estimated that a programme for the control of wind erosion covering 50 million hectares would cost about 3,000 crores of rupees.
Slip Erosion: During heavy rains, water percolates into the soil until it is unable to penetrate further by the underlying impervious rocks. Causes of Soil Erosion in India: Soil erosion takes place when soil is removed faster than it is formed. Out of this about 2. The Chambal-Yamuna badlands, covering a total area of 32 lakh ha. Human activities have increased by 10—40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. Soil erosion causes sediment to accumulate in nearby lakes, rivers and oceans. Severe fires can lead to significant further erosion if followed by heavy rainfall.
In the early spring or following a long period of heavy rainfall, the perfectly stable bank when dry, becomes unstable on saturation also caused by a combination of factors such as destruction of protective vegetation by excessive utilisation, grazing or fire, unstable geology, erodible rocks, blocking for road making, mining, etc. Boosting areas that are prone to erosion with sturdy plant life can be a great way to stave off future effects. Splash erosion result from the bombardment of the soil erosion because of rain drops. This constant cultivation of the land reduces the soils ability to produce valuable humus for soil fertility. Bank Erosion Natural streams and constructed drainage channels act as outlets for surface water runoff and subsurface drainage systems. When this happens, the entire soil layer may be removed in a few years.
The loss of soil from farmland may be reflected in reduced crop production potential, lower surface water quality and damaged drainage networks. The agencies involved in soil erosion, exhaustion and degradation are running water, wind, snow, animals and human beings. It occurs whenever the natural balances in the landscape are changed by human activity through misuse or overuse of soil. Types of Soil Erosion: Wind and water are powerful agents of soil erosion because of their ability to remove soil and transport it. When this happens, the entire soil layer may be removed in a few years. Gully erosion is common on steep slopes. This reduces the actual area under cultivation and the yield of crops decline.
The two most active agents of soil erosion in India are wind and running water. The agencies involved in soil erosion, exhaustion and degradation are running water, wind, snow, animals and human beings. Improper crop rotation: Due to shortage of land, increase of population and economic pressure, the farmers have adopted intensive cropping patterns of commercial crops in place of more balanced cereal-legume rotations. The rain drops, by keeping the water turbid, increase the ability of the runoff water to transport soil particles. Most of the canal areas in arid and semiarid regions are rich in soluble salts. Types of soil erosion Sheet Erosion Removal of a fairly uniform layer of surface soil by the action of rainfall and run-off water. Desert soils suffer maximum erosion by wind.
Shallow soils suffer greater reduction in productivity than deep soils. Continual drifting of an area gradually causes a textural change in the soil. The other areas lie on the eastern coast, extending to a distance of 1000 km from Cape Camorin up to deltas of Krishna, Godawari and Mahanadi rivers. In some parts of Uttar Pradesh the internal drainage is greatly restricted and the soils are charaterised by alkalinity. Somewhere someone is affected due to mining, and reclamation of such derelict land.
Providing outlets for water to drain out excess water and lower water table. Sheet erosion takes place on lower lands after heavy shower and the soil removal is not easily noticeable. The damage is manifolds during flash floods. The problem is more severe in the cultivated areas of the subtropical belt. Industrial wastes are: i Chemical residues ii Fly ash from thermal power stations iii Plastics iv Rubber v Glass vi Discarded Metal Agricultural residues are: i Pesticides ii Fertilisers Another major source of pollution not known to the general public is the creation of derelict land due to mining. In regions with heavy rainfall and steep slopes, erosion by running water is more significant. As the human population increases, the demand on the land also increases.
Drop size may vary from 1 to 8 mm and the velocity nearly 7. Farming practices that reduce this activity tend to have far less issues with soil erosion. Gradually the bed of the river widens. The size and velocity of is also an important factor. During the erosion process, topsoil generally erodes first. Topography and Slope of the Land: Hilly Region: Rainfall occurs in torrents and washes away the top layer of the soil. The water-logging and salinity cause a loss of Rs.
In fact ravine lands are manifestation of extreme form of water erosion occupying approximately 3. Each subsequent rain erodes further amounts of soil until erosion has transformed the area into barren soil. Tillage and cropping practices that reduce soil organic matter levels, cause poor soil structure, or result in soil compaction, contribute to increases in soil erodibility. In general, rill erosion is incipient gully erosion. In agriculture, soil erosion refers to the wearing away of a field's topsoil by the natural physical forces of water and wind or through forces associated with farming activities such as tillage.